Hannah Arendt Ideology and terror: Throughout Occidental history, lawless forms of government, such as tyranny, have been regarded as perverted by definition. Hence, if … the essence of government is defined as lawfulness, and if it is understood that laws are the stabilizing forces in the public affairs of men as indeed it always has been since Plato invoked Zeus, the god of the boundaries, in his Lawsthen the problem of movement of the body politic and the actions of its citizens arises. Therefore, in all non-totalitarian forms of government, the body politic is in constant motion within set boundaries of a stable political order, although tyranny destroys the public space of political action Arendt
Agency for International Developmentwhich conducts criminal and civil investigations, financial and performance audits, reviews, and inspections of USAID activities around the world. Host-country staff normally work under one-year contracts that are renewed annually.
In USAID's management approach, local staff may fill highly responsible, professional roles in program design and management. Some are promoted to the Senior Foreign Service with extended tenure, subject to the Foreign Service's mandatory retirement age of Individuals who pass the test become candidates for the State Department's selection process, which emphasizes personal qualities in thirteen dimensions such as "Composure" and "Resourcefulness.
USAID's internal staffing is a small part of the overall human resources picture, however. A development project that USAID assists may have thousands of the developing country's own people working on it. They collaborate with local leaders to design USAID's assistance and then they oversee the assistance as it is being provided.
A USAID project officer is usually directly responsible for the assistance, with support from the Mission's offices for program evaluation and reporting, contracting, and financial management.
Most USAID project officers support two or three projects, and the time of staff in support offices is also divided across several assistance projects.
Their combined time dedicated to a single assistance project might add up to between one and two "full-time equivalent" staff, which is considerably less than the number of technical-assistance personnel that they monitor, and tiny compared to the country's own level of effort for the project.
Part of the reason for wanting to rebuild USAID's Foreign Service staffing has been to allow field missions to dedicate more people to supporting the development assistance they provide.
Health and Family Planning[ edit ] Examples of projects assisted by missions' Health and Family Planning offices are projects for eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of public health systems focusing on maternal-child health including family planning services, HIV-AIDS monitoring, delivery of medical supplies including contraceptives and HIV vaccines, and coordination of Demographic and Health Surveys.
This assistance is primarily targeted to the poor majority of the population and corresponds to USAID's poverty relief objective, as well as strengthening the basis for socioeconomic development.
Education[ edit ] USAID's Education offices mainly assist the national school system, emphasizing broadening coverage of quality basic education to reach the entire population. Examples of projects often assisted by Education offices are projects for curriculum development, teacher training, and provision of improved textbooks and materials.
Larger programs have included school construction.
Education offices often manage scholarship programs for training in the U. The Education office's emphasis on school access for the poor majority of the population corresponds to USAID's poverty relief objective, as well as to the socioeconomic development objective in the long term.
Environment[ edit ] Examples of projects assisted by Environment offices are projects for tropical forest conservation, protection of indigenous people's lands, regulation of marine fishing industries, pollution control, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and helping communities adapt to climate change.
Environment assistance corresponds to USAID's objective of technical cooperation on global issues, as well as laying a sustainable basis for USAID's socioeconomic development objective in the long term. Democracy[ edit ] Examples of projects assisted by Democracy offices are projects for the country's political institutions, including elections, political parties, legislatures, and human rights organizations.
Counterparts include the judicial sector and civil-society organizations that monitor government performance. Democracy assistance received its greatest impetus at the time of the creation of the successor states to the USSR starting in aboutcorresponding both to USAID's objective of supporting U.
Economic Growth[ edit ] Examples of projects often assisted by Economic Growth offices are projects for improvements in agricultural techniques and marketing the mission may have a specialized "Agriculture" officedevelopment of microfinance industries, streamlining of Customs administrations to accelerate growth of exporting industriesand modernization of government regulatory frameworks for industry in various sectors telecommunications, agriculture, and so forth.
Economic Growth assistance is thus quite diverse in terms of the range of sectors where it may work. It corresponds to USAID's socioeconomic development objective and is the source of sustainable poverty reduction.
Economic Growth offices also occasionally manage assistance to poverty relief projects, such as to government programs that provide "cash transfer" payments to low-income families. Special assistance offices[ edit ] Some USAID missions have specialized technical offices for areas like counter-narcotics assistance or assistance in conflict zones.
Rather than having a permanent presence in country missions, this office has supplies pre-positioned in strategic locations to respond quickly to disasters when and where they occur.
With the help of the Program Office, the Mission Director ensures that designs are consistent with USAID policy for the country, including budgetary earmarks by which Washington directs that funds be used for certain general purposes such as public health or environmental conservation.
The Program Office compiles combined reports to Washington to support budget requests to Congress and to verify that budgets were used as planned. Contracting offices[ edit ] Commitments of U.
The Mission Director is authorized to commit financial assistance directly to the country's government agencies. Financial management offices[ edit ] Funds can be committed only when the Mission's Controller certifies their availability for the stated purpose. They evaluate potential recipients' management abilities before financial assistance can be authorized and then review implementers' expenditure reports with great care.
This office often has the largest number of staff of any office in the mission. Management offices[ edit ] Called the "Executive Office" in USAID sometimes leading to confusion with the Embassy's Executive Office, which is the office of the Ambassador"EXO" provides operational support for mission offices, including human resources, information systems management, transportation, property and procurement services.
Assistance projects[ edit ] While the terms "assistance project" and "development project" might sometimes be used indiscriminately, it helps in understanding USAID's work to make a distinction.
Development projects are projects of local government agencies and NGOs, such as projects to improve public services or business regulations, etc. USAID's assistance projects support local development projects.
The key to a successful development project is the institutional capacity of local organizations, including the professional ability of their staff members.The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development leslutinsduphoenix.com a budget of over $27 billion, USAID is one of the largest official aid agencies in the world, and accounts for more than half of all U.S.
foreign assistance—the. If you've taken political science as an optional subject in UPSC Civil service exam, you'd need IGNOU's BA and MA material for Political science.
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The main focus of SCT, in particular, is an individuals connection and involvement in social interactions and culturally controlled activities which shape and construct mental development. In the many, locally fully sovereign states - Empires, Kingdoms, Grand-Duchies, Duchies, Free Cities etc., - involved in the German Confederation were directly descended from the terms of settlement agreed at the Congress of Vienna held in at the close of .
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