It is a disorder caused by a lack of attachment to any specific caregiver at an early age, and results in an inability for the child to form normal, loving relationships with others. This paper gives a review of the disorder as it is currently understood, including explanation of attachment theory, groups commonly affected by the disorder, and symptoms characterizing RAD. Finally, a critique of the current stance on the conceptualization of RAD is given, with some exploration into whether this disorder is really the result of disturbance in attachment or due to responses and reactions both on the part of the caregiver and the child due to temperament.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Reactive attachment disorder RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning.
Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1, children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population.
We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE.
We discuss the clinical and educational implications. Introduction Reactive attachment disorder RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning.
It has two subtypes: It is thought that RAD is a result of severe maltreatment in early childhood, and there is research indicating that adopted children will be more likely diagnosed as having RAD than children raised by a biological parent [ 2 ].
In addition to the core features described above, there are numerous symptoms associated with RAD for example, Stinehart et al. There have been many studies which have examined cognitive and developmental characteristics of children with this disorder.
They found that children with RAD had significantly higher problem scores on both parent and teacher reports in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ which covers symptoms of conduct problems, emotional problems anxiety and depressionhyperactivity, and peer relations. A further study with these children showed that children with RAD demonstrate significant problems in social relatedness and pragmatic language skills with a degree of severity equivalent to children in an ASD comparison group [ 4 ].
They found that these children had a lower IQ than a comparison group, were more likely to have language problems and to have several comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of the key research in this area comes from the Bucharest Intervention Studies. They have found high levels of Reactive Attachment Disorder symptoms in the sample and associations between RAD and lower cognitive ability [ 7 ].
In addition, their results show adverse effects of poor institutional care on later language development [ 8 ], and found attachment security as an important mediator of the relationship between the quality of early caregiving and later psychopathology [ 9 ]. These important studies have shown that children with RAD may experience additional problems affecting both development and future outcomes.
Gillberg [ 10 ] discussed the coexistence of disorders, concluding that the sharing of symptoms across disorders is the rule rather than the exception and argued that numerous childhood disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and reactive attachment disorder all share symptoms in the early stages which should be treated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists.
RAD has not traditionally been considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder, as it is thought to be caused by maltreatment, but it may be that maltreatment in early life can set in train developmental trajectories that are shared by other ESSENCE disorders.
Because all of the previous research has been conducted in clinical or otherwise select samples, such as children from institutions, we were keen to explore the difficulties which children with RAD encounter while living in the general population.
Minnis and colleagues [ 11 ] conducted the first epidemiological study focussing on the prevalence of RAD in the general population and found a prevalence of 1. With such a high prevalence of RAD in the general population, it is imperative to understand the additional needs of these children.
This study describes the characteristics of the children identified as having RAD in this sample.
We were interested to explore whether children with RAD in the general population also have complex, overlapping problems i. Design and Participants This study was part of a population-based study investigating the prevalence of Reactive Attachment Disorder RAD in 6—8 years old children from a sector of a UK city characterised by high levels of deprivation.
For a detailed description of the methodology, see [ 11 ].Published: Mon, 5 Dec Reactive attachment disorder can be defined as a disorder caused by absence of attachment to any care giver at an early age and results in inability of a child to establish an affectionate relationship with others.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is one of the few disorders listed in the DSM-IV that can be applied to infants. It is a disorder caused by a lack of attachment to any specific caregiver at an early age, and results in an inability for the child to form normal, loving relationships with others.
Peer reviewed journals, research from psychological studies on reactive attachment disorder and even your own qualitative or quantitative study on the disorder can be used in a custom paper.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe but rare disorder affecting some children. Based on the research conducted on reactive attachment disorder thus far and on the ideas presented by Zeanah and Fox () regarding temperament, I conclude that RAD is a disorder of attachment that may be affected by a child's temperament.
Abstract. This report examines the outcomes on various domains of development (cognitive, social emotional) of children with attachment disorders as well as internal working models of attachment, conditions of insecure attachment, information regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder, and implications of early attachment experiences on .
Reactive attachment disorder research papers look at the psychological disorder that generally focuses on child psychology. Peer reviewed journals, research from psychological studies on reactive attachment disorder and even your own qualitative or quantitative study on the disorder can be used in .