Sample source[ edit ] Glucose testing in a fasting individual, show comparable levels of glucose in arterial, venous, and capillary blood.
It is composed of several interacting systems, of which hormone regulation is the most important. There are two types of mutually antagonistic metabolic hormones affecting blood glucose levels: These hormones are secreted from pancreatic islets which are bundles of endocrine tissues.
Glucagon is secreted from alpha cells, while insulin is secreted by beta cells. Together they regulate the blood-glucose levels through negative feedback, a process where the end product of one reaction stimulates the beginning of another reaction.
In blood-glucose levels, insulin lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood. The lower blood-glucose level a product of the insulin secretion triggers glucagon to be secreted, and repeats the cycle. Each of these hormones has a different responsibility to keep blood glucose regulated; when blood sugar is too high, insulin tells muscles to take up excess glucose for storage.
Glucagon responds to too low of a blood glucose level; it informs the tissue to produce more glucose. Epinephrine prepares the muscles and respiratory system for activity in the case of a "fight and flight" response. Lastly, cortisol supplies the body with fuel in times of heavy stress.
Long-term hyperglycemia causes many long-term health problems including heart disease, cancer,  eye, kidney, and nerve damage.
Ketones will be very high a magnitude higher than when eating a very low carbohydrate diet initiating ketoacidosis. The most common cause of hyperglycemia is diabetes. When diabetes is the cause, physicians typically recommend an anti-diabetic medication as treatment.
From the perspective the majority of patients, treatment with an old, well-understood diabetes drug such as metformin will be the safest, most effective, least expensive, most comfortable route to managing the condition. Fasting blood glucose levels may be higher than the post meal blood glucose in many of the healthy subjects.
Such individuals may be said to have physiological insulin resistance and may develop diabetes mellitus as long term complication. In clinical and laboratory practices, many of the time a healthy normal subject will present a fasting blood glucose value higher than the post meal blood glucose value.
This creates confusion since there is a common perception that in blood, postprandial PP glucose level should be higher than fasting F glucose level. The repeated investigation subsequently yields somewhat similar type of result.
Symptoms may include lethargyimpaired mental functioning; irritability ; shaking, twitching, weakness in arm and leg muscles; pale complexion; sweating; loss of consciousness.
Without discounting the potentially quite serious conditions and risks due to or oftentimes accompanying hyperglycemia, especially in the long-term diabetes or pre-diabetes, obesity or overweight, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, etc. This is especially the case for those organs that are metabolically active or that require a constant, regulated supply of blood sugar the liver and brain are examples.
In healthy individuals, blood glucose-regulating mechanisms are generally quite effective, and symptomatic hypoglycemia is generally found only in diabetics using insulin or other pharmacological treatment, and in starvation or severe malnutrition or malabsorption of various causesand conditions such as anorexia[ dubious — discuss ].
Hypoglycemic episodes can vary greatly between persons and from time to time, both in severity and swiftness of onset. For severe cases, prompt medical assistance is essential, as damage to brain and other tissues and even death will result from sufficiently low blood-glucose levels.For people with diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels (or blood glucose levels) is kind of like piloting that plane.
To stay in the air and have the most fun, you have to keep blood sugar levels steady. Having a blood sugar level that's too high can make you feel lousy, and having it often can be unhealthy.
If you are a diabetic, high blood sugar levels may need to be controlled by increased amounts of insulin, if you are already on insulin treatment. If you are only taking tablets to control the blood sugar levels, this may need to be reviewed, to optimize treatment of your diabetes.
In the opposite manner, insulin causes a decrease in blood sugar that stimulates alpha cells to release glucagon to counteract levels that may be too low.
This tight control maintains a balance of blood sugar that protects the body from the damaging effects of widely fluctuating levels. This causes blood sugar levels to get too high. People with Type 1 take insulin injections to help regulate their blood glucose levels.
Type 2 diabetes is when the cells in the body do not react properly with the insulin being produced. What does cortisol do? Because most bodily cells have cortisol receptors, it affects many different functions in the body.
Cortisol can help control blood sugar levels, regulate metabolism, help reduce inflammation, and assist with memory formulation. It has a controlling effect on salt and water balance and helps control blood pressure. This tight control maintains a balance of blood sugar that protects the body from the damaging effects of widely fluctuating levels.
Somatostatin Other cells within the pancreatic islets secret somatostatin, which inhibits several different hormones in the body, including human growth hormone, insulin and .