When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Footnotes and Endnotes Summary:
What Are Footnotes and Ho While reading a book or article, have you ever noticed little numbers placed at the ends of some sentences? These numbers usually appear as superscripts and correspond with numbers placed at the bottom of the page, next to which appears further information that is both necessary and supplementary.
Sometimes this information will come in the form of citations, but sometimes it will simply present additional notes about the topic at hand. These citations and explanations are called footnotes because they appear in the footer of the page.
Take a look at the example below to see where footnotes appear on a page: Long explanatory notes can be difficult for readers to trudge through when they occur in the middle of a paper. Providing this information is necessary, but doing so in the main text can disrupt the flow of the writing.
Imagine if every time an author wanted to provide a citation, the entire citation had to be written out at the end of the sentence, like this Anthony Grafton, The Footnote: Harvard University Press, ] Books would become much longer and reading much more tedious.
Footnotes can include anything from a citation to parenthetical information, outside sources, copyright permissions, background information, and anything in between, though certain style guides restrict when footnotes can be used. Endnotes Authors can also use endnotes to avoid disrupting their writing with extraneous information.
As with footnotes, the presence of an endnote is identified in the main text with a small superscript number. However, instead of providing the correlating note at the bottom of the same page, endnotes are found collectively at the end of an article, chapter, or document.
When deciding whether to use footnotes or endnotesauthors must consider three main factors: However, footnotes are occasionally employed in other style guides as well. Modern Language Association MLA While MLA style discourages the use of long footnotes or endnotes, the style guide does permit their use for directing readers to other pertinent information on a relevant subject.
The guide recommends that superscript numbers within the text are placed outside any punctuation that might be present i. The exception to this is that the superscript numbers should be placed before dashes. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a clause,1 add the number after the comma.
When a footnote must be placed at the end of a sentence, add the number after the period. Even then, the guide recommends that footnotes only be used to provide content notes such as providing brief, supplemental information about the text or directing readers to additional information and to denote copyright permissions.
While CMS does allow the author—date system of in-text referencing i. In both cases, bibliographies are also required. As an example, if footnotes are used, the following format should be adhered to when referencing a book in CMS: Technical Guide to Using Footnotes To use footnotes in your own book, essay, or article, you must first decide on the most appropriate and logical placement of your footnotes in the text.
Add numbers according to your chosen style guide, and be sure to add the numbers directly after the phrase, clause, or sentence to which the corresponding footnote refers.
Footnotes can be added quickly and easily using Microsoft Word. Click on the place in the text where you want the first number to appear. In the References tab, there is a Footnotes group.
In that group, click the button that says Insert Footnote. After you click that button, two numbers should appear: Write your citation or additional information next to the number that appears in the footer.
Format the information according to the rules of your style guide. You can also adjust the footnote settings like the numbering by clicking the arrow beside the Footnotes group. Final Tips and Tricks To avoid cluttering the page, you should use footnotes sparingly and only to provide helpful additions or citations.
When creating your footnotes, always keep reader convenience in mind and remember that the footnotes are there to convey helpful information. If your footnotes are excessive or unnecessary, readers are likely to become annoyed and may even be distracted from the main points of your writing.(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation. NOTE. The Writing of God: Secret of the Real Mount Sinai [Miles R Jones] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The Writing of God presents proof of the seminal event of the Old Testament, when God handed down to Moses the word and the writing of God (Exodus ).
Timothy John Russert (May 7, – June 13, ) was an American television journalist and lawyer who appeared for more than 16 years as the longest-serving moderator of NBC's Meet the leslutinsduphoenix.com was a senior vice president at NBC News, Washington bureau chief and also hosted an eponymous CNBC/MSNBC weekend interview leslutinsduphoenix.com was a frequent correspondent and guest on NBC's .
For footnote only, number each Note and provide citation page/s (or paragraph/s for online without pages). For library databases, add database, date of accession.
Footnote / Endnote Format (N) Rick White, "Semis-Stock Selloff a Major Buying Opportunity," Caris & Company, Mar. 8, , pp. , available from Thomson One, accessed June 12, Both a contract drafter and a contract reviewer can save some time by first reviewing — together — the Common Draft short-form contract drafts (as well as other clause titles) and discussing just what types of provision they want in their document.
The footnote takes the form of a superscripted number, just after a paraphrased piece of information. Subsequently, a cross-reference to this number is inserted at the bottom of the same page. In fact, for dissertations and theses, many writers use footnotes to keep track of their citations, adding a short note of what exactly each one adds to the paper.