But it is still possible to make a successful document if you know the main rules. Make sure you have a lot of time for planning and writing.
Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others.
There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments.
Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science. You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views.
The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source.
Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.
Sources that need to be acknowledged are not limited to books and journal articles, but include internet sites, computer software, written and e-mail correspondence, even verbal conversations with other people in person or by telephone.
All different kinds of sources must be acknowledged. Furthermore, if you use figures, illustrations, or graphical material, either directly or in modified form, that you did not yourself create or design, you need to acknowledge the sources of those figures. Details of Citing References in your Text When you cite a reference in your text you should use one of the following three formats: According to Rodgersthe Appalachian mountains were formed in three events.
The first of the three events occurred in the Ordovician, the second in the Devonian, and the third in the Carboniferous and Permian Periods Rodgers, You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.
Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines. If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If the reference you are citing has two authors, use the following format: Periods of glaciation have a large effect on sea level Ingmanson and Wallace, If the reference you are citing has more than two authors, use the following format: Hot spots are formed by the drift of plates over mantle plumes Vink et al.
If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person: It is possible to correct the raw dD values measured on the mass spectrometer Mark Conrad, Lawrence-Berkeley National Lab, personal communication.
Later citations to the same person can be shortened, as in: If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mailyou would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.
Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.
If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name: The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from the Council of Biology Editors For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation: As New England is located at the convergence of several distinct storm tracks http: Such a source would be omitted from your References Cited or Bibliography section.
Details of Formatting Reference Lists Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more! It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you have more than one entry by the same author, they should be further ordered by increasing publication date more recent papers last.
If you have multiple sources from a single author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c You should include enough information that your readers will be able to find these sources on their own.
The exact format is not critical, but consistency and completeness is. Reference lists are generally reverse-indented--this just helps the reader to find references to specific authors that much faster.
Follow the examples given below and you will be all set. For Books List all authors by last name and initials, separated by commas if there are more than two authors. Put an "and" before the last author in the list.In addition, Anice Mills, undergraduate services librarian, in Butler Library, can help you create bibliographies and cite sources using a variety of citation styles and software, and can also help you do ethical research with proper citations.
Home > Research Support > Citing Sources. Citing Sources. APA. Also see print version. Chicago. Also see print version or online (Duke only) version.
CSE. Also see print version. MLA. Also see print version.
Turabian. Also see print or Kindle versions. Citing Sources: Getting Started. When you do research for a paper, write down all the necessary information needed to locate the material in a citation format.
Frequently notes are cited within the text of your paper. Some citation styles only use Notes Within the Text.
Citing primary sources can be difficult, especially when you are using a source that has been digitized or reproduced on a website.
Obviously, a letter from that you see online is not the real thing! Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources.
The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet. These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet.
This area also includes materials on evaluating research sources.