It is difficult to ascertain which meaning came first, but it is understandable how Greeks may have associated the crimson or purple color of dates and dye with the merchants who traded both products. Beekes has suggested a pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym.
History of science Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought.
This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs,  dams, and dikes, and buildings such as the Pyramids.
However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy.
Early cultures Main article: History of science in early cultures Clay models of animal livers dating between the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BCE, found in the royal palace in Mari, Syria Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
Nature philosophy In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention. They were mainly speculators or theoristsparticularly interested in astronomy. The Socratic method as documented by Plato 's dialogues is a dialectic method of hypothesis elimination: This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric.
The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs.
Socrates was later, in the words of his Apology, accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings".
Socrates refuted these claims,  but was sentenced to death. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are.
In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal causea final causeand a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover.
The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy. Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing scientifically "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty".
During late antiquity, in the Byzantine empire many Greek classical texts were preserved. Many Syriac translations were done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites. Medieval science postulated a ventricle of the brain as the location for our common sense: Byzantine scienceScience in the medieval Islamic worldand European science in the Middle Ages Because of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire due to the Migration Period an intellectual decline took place in the western part of Europe in the s.
In contrast, the Byzantine Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, and preserved and improved upon the learning. John Philoponusa Byzantine scholar in the s, was the first scholar ever to question Aristotle's teaching of physics and to note its flaws.Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia The Sumerians developed the first form of writing.
As Sumerian towns grew into cities, the people needed a way to keep track of business transactions, ownership rights. Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c.
BCE. It is considered the most significant among the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing of . Archival Science and Postmodernism: New Formulations for Old Concepts. By TERRY COOK. This article is the first of a two-paper series.
It was originally published in Archival Science, vol. 1, no. 1 (): , the International Journal on Recorded Information incorporating Archives and Museum Informatics and is published here with the kind permission of the author and copyright holder.
Writing Over five thousand years ago, people living in Mesopotamia developed a form of writing to record and communicate different types of information.
Cuneiform writing in the Akkadian language continued in use until the first century CE. writing reflected the mode of speaking. the letters became cuneiform.
Literacy in Mesopotamia 1. Early settlers began to build and rebuild temples at selected spots in their villages.5/5(3). Content/Language Goal: I will be able to write to identify how Mesopotamia's history changed over time. Learning Target: SS Determine and explain the historical context of key people, events and ideas over time and in clude the examination of different perspectives from people involved.