Introduction to Romanticism Romanticism has very little to do with things popularly thought of as "romantic," although love may occasionally be the subject of Romantic art.
Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations.
They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition. The only written records of their civilization are the texts left by classical authors, the first of which appear circa BCE.
These accounts, inaccurate as they may be, are important in that they demonstrate that the Celts came into cultural contact, and sometimes competition, with the Greeks as well as the Romans. In recent years, modern archeology has been successful in reconstructing an echo of the "voice" of the ancient Celts.
Facets of Celtic society, economy, and religion completely ignored by Classical texts have been brought to light. The classical image of Celtic life describes barbaric men and women dressed in uncured animal skins in primitive villages, people who worshipped strange deities and whose lives were consumed in blood feuds.
Because of the authority of the classical authors, these ancient misconceptions were pervasive. The Celts impressed the Greeks and Romans with their bold dress and powerful appearance. Generally characterized by classical observers as a people of fair hair, of red or gold, and fair complexions, although the people of the British Isles were described as small and dark-haired most Celtic women apparently stood taller than the average Roman citizen.
Celtic women, upon reaching maturity, adopted a complex braided style for their hair, and wore dyed and embroidered dresses. Plaids, or wrapped woven cloaks, were common for men and women alike, and gold and silver torques and armrills, as well as rings, adorned wealthy Celts.
Brooches that held closed the openings of dresses and plaids were another common feature of Celtic dress. Gallic men commonly spiked their hair and bleached it to an almost white color with chalky water, and wore their beards long, while the Bretons and Picts tattooed their arms and faces with blue.
Many Danish and English bogs have yielded archeological evidence of cloth and dress, and Roman historians such as Tacitus also document some of the customs of everyday Celtic life. Some features of Celtic life were not as closely chronicled in classical sources.
The quality of Celtic metal-work was technically and artistically advanced. Most Celtic people lived in well-populated farming villages, with larger towns linking smaller settlements and acting as meeting sites for economic and cultural activity. Fortified cities and shrines were erected along well-travelled roadways.
Celtic societies, once considered "barbaric" as seen through the lens of classical observers, are now looked upon as advanced cultures networked through the bond of a common linguistic heritage.
Piecing together the culture and lives of the ancient Celts, in the absence of clear archeological or textual record, is not an easy task.
No one is even sure where the term "Celtic" comes from. With a great deal of inconsistency, classical sources provide tantalizing but incomplete information about the peoples called Keltoi and Galatatae by the Greeks, and Celtae or Galli by the Romans.
Two thousand years ago, the term Celt was used specifically for peoples inhabiting continental Europe; the denizens of England and Ireland were not to be called "Celts" until seventeenth and eighteenth-century linguistic scholarship began to identify the inhabitants of the pre-Roman British Isles as Celtic peoples.
Who were the Celts? The issue is further obscured by the eighteenth and nineteenth-century Romantics. Clumping all of the Celtic peoples into one homogeneous family with a single ethnic identity, the Romantics exalted the idea of the "noble savage.
Modern nationalist writers such as William Butler Yeats in Ireland and Sir Walter Scott in Scotland used such idealized portraits as the basis of a new pan-Celtic movement that offered resistance to the modernization and imperialism of Victorian Britain.
Evidence From the Past: Text, Linguistics, and Archeology There are three types of evidence from the Iron Age through the Roman period available to archeologists and scholars of Celtic history. The first of these is documentary sources, or texts. Because concepts like language and cultural identity have no physical manifestation, written records are our only source for reconstructing them.
The second source is linguistics, in the form of Celtic names and words referred to in Classical records, or place-names. These give philologists clues as to where the Celtic branch of languages may be placed in relation to other languages of the world.
Celtic languages are now identified as one branch of the large Indo-European family. Ogham is the first Irish method of writing, dating from the fourth century, CE.
Supposed by some historians to have resulted from contact with Latin Roman numerals, the resulting ogham alphabet is unique to Ireland. Its beauty and usefulness lie in its absolute simplicity - ogham can be easily cut into wood or carved into stone.
The central line on which the characters sit is usually the edge of the writing surface, such as along the edge of a stone monument.Celtic Number Mythology.
Three was a sacred number in ancient Celtic mythology and religion. Riddles and triadic phraseology are frequent in Celtic mythology. The triskel, a figure composed of three spirals, signifies the three-layered nature of a human soul, and is itself a .
William Blake () A selective list of online literary criticism for the nineteenth-century English Romantic poet and artist William Blake, with links to reliable biographical and introductory material and signed, peer-reviewed, and scholarly literary criticism.
Introduction to German Philosophy is the only book inEnglish to provide a comprehensive account of the key ideas andarguments of modern German philosophy from Kant to the leslutinsduphoenix.com Bowie offers an accessible introduction to the work, amongothers, of Kant, Herder, Fichte, the Romantics, Schelling, Hegel,Marx, Nietzsche, Frege, Wittgenstein, the Vienna Circle, Husserl,Heidegger, Benjamin.
You're not alone. You're quirkyalone. My weeklyish newsletter the Sasha Cagen Weeklyish goes out to 5, quirky souls. Sign up to get inspiration . An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. Celts occupied land in modern day Eastern Europe, Greece, Spain, Northern Italy, Western Europe, England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
Feb 13, · Romanticism is a historical movement that still hugely colours how we tend to feel and look at the world: it’s responsible for the way we approach love, nature, business and children.