In the early 20th century, a British artillery officer proposed that another work tentatively attributed to BaconEpistola de Secretis Operibus Artis et Naturae, et de Nullitate Magiae, also known as Opus Minor, dated tocontained an encrypted formula for gunpowder hidden in the text. These claims have been disputed by science historians.
Sunday, February 5, Smokeless Powders: Further Developments in France In our last postwe studied some developments in powder technology advancements in France. In today's post we will study some further developments in the field.
In our last post, we studied how the team of Serrau and Vieille had made improvements in the process of measuring chamber pressures. In fact, Vieille invented a modification to the crusher gauge that enabled him to record the explosive strength over time, rather than just the maximum explosive strength.
He also studied the effect of other parameters such as grain sizes and shapes and how Advancements in gun development smokeless gunpowder affected the speed of the explosion and the pressure curves generated over time.
This enabled him to prove that the theory originally suggested in by General Guillaume Piobertwas indeed valid fact, and that combustion does take place in parallel layers Piobert's law Paul Vieille Image released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.
In the case of classic black powder, the powders are made of a mixture of charcoal, potassium nitrate saltpeter and sulfur and made of individual grains. They can be made to varying densities by refining and compressing them, which we studied in several previous posts.
However, there are still spaces in between the grains and these interstices cannot be completely got rid of in conventional black powder. Therefore, no black powder really burns according to Piobert's law of parallel layers -- for this to happen, the black powder needs to be a homogeneous mixture without these spaces between the grains.
However, Vieille didn't just study black powder, he also extended his study newer explosives including gun cotton as well. Due to his studies, he now understood why gun cotton's fibrous structure caused it to burn much more quickly in a barrel than black powder and why it produced much more force.
He understood that if he could somehow reduce the combustion rate of gun cotton, then it could be used as an excellent propellant for firearms as well, and to do this, he would need to change the structure of the gun cotton fibers, so that he could enable it to burn in "parallel layers".
His idea was to convert the gun cotton into a "powder", not like black powder which has gaps between the grains, but more like a homogeneous material whose geometry could be modified by the manufacturer to burn at a precise rate in layers.
His method was to dissolve the gun cotton in a mixture of alcohol and ether, stabilize it with amyl alcohol and form a colloidal paste.
This colloidal paste could then be passed through heavy rollers to make thin sheets of precise thickness, extruded into rods, molded into plates etc. All this development took place between and and the first practical results came out in A sample of Poudre B.
Click on the image to enlarge. The word "Poudre" means "powder" in French and the letter "V" at the end stood for the name of its inventor, Paul Vieille. However, the French military were concerned that the Germans might find out details about this new invention and therefore, they arbitrarily changed its name to "Poudre B" so that the inventor's name would no longer be in it.
Some claim that the name stood for "Poudre Blanche" i. The French military quickly adopted this powder and they also developed a new rifle for this, the 8 mm. Lebel rifle, in This was the first military rifle to use smokeless ammunition.
The Lebel rifle was a game-changer on the battlefield. First, it had longer range and a flatter trajectory than other rifles. Since the ammunition produces much less smoke, a soldier could stay hidden from the enemy, but locate them by observing the smoke from their black powder rifles.
As the new propellant was three times more powerful than black powder, the cartridges weighed less for the same performance, which meant the soldier could carry more of them.
The Lebel could also fire at the faster rate of 43 rounds a minute, compared to 26 rounds for the black powder M84 rifle of the German army. This is one reason why Otto von Bismarck opposed invading France in the winter of when his war minister Alfred von Waldersee wanted to go to war.
Other foreign powers learned that the French possessed a new propellant by after the Lebel rifle was accepted into military service. German spies were able to obtain a sample, but could not identify its components or manufacturing process.
Inthe British managed to obtain some small tablets of Poudre B and picric acid and identified the compounds that form the basis of it.
Quickly, the knowledge of its composition spread to other countries as well and they began to manufacture their own smokeless powders as well. It must be mentioned that Poudre B still had some stability issues, especially when stored for long periods of time, due to the improper removal of acid during their manufacturing process.
This caused two French warships, the Iena and the Liberte, to blow up in and Crime Scene Training A blog to teach the fundamentals of Crime Scene Investigation, and to encourage input, feedback and involvement from site visitors.
advancements in gun development smokeless gunpowder Need writing the smokeless gunpowder advancement essay? cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
Gunpowder Essay Examples. TECHNOLOGY LEVELS A useful concept in science fiction gaming is the technology level (or “tech level”), denoting what a given world . In the Navy's Policy Board called for a variety of large caliber weapons, from 8" ( cm) all the way up to 16" ( cm).
One advantage of gunpowder is the fact that it can speed up construction for things such as mines or tunnels for trains or cars. In the middle ages gunpowder reduced costs of armies as they did not need as many musketeers as archers.
Rifles can shoot long range and were more deadly than swords or bows. The timeline of advancements in gun development smokeless gunpowder historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important advancements in gun development smokeless gunpowder or significant technological inventions and the people who created synthesis pyrasulfotole essay the inventions Eight rifles from the big powers in WWII.