What are the 95 Theses of Martin Luther? His revolutionary ideas served as the catalyst for the eventual breaking away from the Catholic Church and were later instrumental in forming the movement known as the Protestant Reformation. In essence, his Theses called for a full reform of the Catholic Church and challenged other scholars to debate with him on matters of church policy. His belief was that the papacy had deteriorated to the point that the people were being led to believe in man-made doctrines.
Ninety-five Theses The first thesis has become famous. Theses 14—16 discuss the idea that the punishment of purgatory can be likened to the fear and despair felt by dying people.
He denies that the pope has any power over people in purgatory in theses 25 and He sees it as encouraging sinful greed, and says it is impossible to be certain because only God has ultimate power in forgiving punishments in purgatory.
Since no one knows whether a person is truly repentant, a letter assuring a person of his forgiveness is dangerous. In theses 35 and 36, he attacks the idea that an indulgence makes repentance unnecessary.
This leads to the conclusion that the truly repentant person, who alone may benefit from the indulgence, has already received the only benefit the indulgence provides.
Truly repentant Christians have already, according to Luther, been forgiven of the penalty as well as the guilt of sin. Theses 39 and 40 argue that indulgences make true repentance more difficult. Here he begins to use the phrase, "Christians are to be taught In theses 48—52 Luther takes the side of the pope, saying that if the pope knew what was being preached in his name he would rather St.
He states that everyday Christians do not understand the doctrine and are being misled. For Luther, the true treasure of the church is the gospel of Jesus Christ.
This treasure tends to be hated because it makes "the first last",  in the words of Matthew The preachers have been promoting indulgences as the greatest of the graces available from the church, but they actually only promote greed.
Luther states that indulgences cannot take away the guilt of even the lightest of venial sins. He labels several other alleged statements of the indulgence preachers as blasphemy: He presents these as difficult objections his congregants are bringing rather than his own criticisms.
How should he answer those who ask why the pope does not simply empty purgatory if it is in his power? What should he say to those who ask why anniversary masses for the deadwhich were for the sake of those in purgatory, continued for those who had been redeemed by an indulgence?
Luther claimed that it seemed strange to some that pious people in purgatory could be redeemed by living impious people. Luther also mentions the question of why the pope, who is very rich, requires money from poor believers to build St. Luther claims that ignoring these questions risks allowing people to ridicule the pope.
Enduring punishment and entering heaven is preferable to false security. Holding such a debate was a privilege Luther held as a doctor, and it was not an unusual form of academic inquiry.
Karlstadt posted his theses at a time when the relics of the church were placed on display, and this may have been considered a provocative gesture.
Around this time, he began using the name "Luther" and sometimes "Eleutherius", Greek for "free", rather than "Luder".Full text and audio database of Top American Speeches by Rank Order. Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (August 7, – June 12, ) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy.
In , she shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Oliver E. Williamson for her "analysis of economic governance, especially the commons". Herbert in Newton, Massachusetts, Books, Articles and Reviews about Herbert Marcuse.
list compiled by Harold Marcuse (Harold's UCSB homepage)from US . Archaeologists usually do not address linguistic issues.
This is probably why, although firm conclusions about absence of invasions and cultural continuity already began to appear in the archaeological literature of the Seventies, historical linguists have continued to assume the traditional theory as an undisputed truth.
The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Biographical Dictionary Pope Leo X () Consistory of July 1, (V) (9) 1. CONTI, Francesco (ca.
). Birth. Volume 1, Original Narrative, (Tucker and Nicholson) & (Appleton). The first volume (Tucker, Nicholson & Appleton) ( pages) is a chronological account or narrative of the expedition.